As the price of computer processors and peripheral components dropped precipitously from the days of mainframes, it became easier for computer technology to end up in people’s homes. But the crucial element of the PC’s success is not that it has a cheap processor inside, but that it is generative: it is open to reprogramming and thus repurposing by anyone. Its technical architecture, whether Windows, Mac, or other, makes it easy for authors to write and owners to run new code both large and small. As prices dropped, distributed ownership of computers, rather than leasing within institutional environments, became a practical reality, removing legal and business practice barriers to generative tinkering with the machines.


If the hobbyist PC had not established the value of tinkering so that the PC could enter the mainstream in the late 1980s,1 what cheap processors would small firms and mainstream consumers be using today? One possibility is a set of information appliances. In such a world, people would use smart typewriters for word processing from companies like Brother: all-in-one units with integrated screens and printers that could be used only to produce documents. For gaming, they would use dedicated video game consoles—just as many do today. A personal checkbook might have had its own souped-up adding machine/calculator unit for balancing accounts—or it might have had no appliance at all, since the cost of deploying specialized hardware for that purpose might have exceeded consumer demand.

There is still the question of networking. People would likely still want to exchange word processing and other documents with colleagues or friends. To balance checkbooks conveniently would require communication with the bank so that the user would not have to manually enter cleared checks and their dates from a paper statement. Networking is not impossible in a world of stand-alone appliances. Brother word processor users could exchange diskettes with each other, and the bank could mail its customers cassettes, diskettes, or CD-ROMs containing data usable only with the bank’s in-home appliance. Or the home appliance could try to contact the bank’s computer from afar—an activity that would require the home and the bank to be networked somehow.

This configuration converges on the Hollerith model, where a central computer could be loaded with the right information automatically if it were in the custody of the bank, or if the bank had a business relationship with a third-party manager. Then the question becomes how far away the various dumb terminals could be from the central computer. The considerable expense of building networks would suggest placing the machines in clusters, letting people come to them. Electronic balancing of one’s checkbook would take place at a computer installed in a bank lobby or strategically located cyber café, just as automated teller machines (ATMs) are dispersed around cities today. People could perform electronic document research over another kind of terminal found at libraries and schools. Computers, then, are only one piece of a mosaic that can be more or less generative. Another critical piece is the network, its own generativity hinging on how much it costs to use, how its costs are measured, and the circumstances under which its users can connect to one another.

Just as information processing devices can be appliance, mainframe, PC, or something in between, there are a variety of ways to design a network. The choice of configuration involves many trade-offs. This chapter explains why the Internet was not the only way to build a network—and that different network configurations lead not only to different levels of generativity, but also to different levels of regulability and control. That we use the Internet today is not solely a matter of some policy-maker’s choice, although certain regulatory interventions and government funding were necessary to its success. It is due to an interplay of market forces and network externalities that are based on presumptions such as how trustworthy we can expect people to be. As those presumptions begin to change, so too will the shape of the network and the things we connect to it.


Returning to a threshold question: if we wanted to allow people to use information technology at home and to be able to network in ways beyond sending floppy diskettes through the mail, how can we connect homes to the wider world? A natural answer would be to piggyback on the telephone network, which was already set up to convey people’s voices from one house to another, or between houses and institutions. Cyberlaw scholar Tim Wu and others have pointed out how difficult it was at first to put the telephone network to any new purpose, not for technical reasons, but for ones of legal control—and thus how important early regulatory decisions forcing an opening of the network were to the success of digital networking.2

In early twentieth-century America, AT&T controlled not only the telephone network, but also the devices attached to it. People rented their phones from AT&T, and the company prohibited them from making any modifications to the phones. To be sure, there were no AT&T phone police to see what customers were doing, but AT&T could and did go after the sellers of accessories like the Hush-A-Phone, which was invented in 1921 as a way to have a conversation without others nearby overhearing it.3 It was a huge plastic funnel enveloping the user’s mouth on one end and strapped to the microphone of the handset on the other, muffling the conversation. Over 125,000 units were sold.


As the monopoly utility telephone provider, AT&T faced specialized regulation from the U.S. Federal Communications Commission (FCC). In 1955, the FCC held that AT&T could block the sale of the funnels as “unauthorized foreign attachments,” and terminate phone service to those who purchased them, but the agency’s decision was reversed by an appellate court. The court drolly noted, “[AT&T does] not challenge the subscriber’s right to seek privacy. They say only that he should achieve it by cupping his hand between the transmitter and his mouth and speaking in a low voice into this makeshift muffler.”4


Cupping a hand and placing a plastic funnel on the phone seemed the same to the court. It found that at least in cases that were not “publicly detrimental”—in other words, where the phone system was not itself harmed—AT&T had to allow customers to make physical additions to their handsets, and manufacturers to produce and distribute those additions. AT&T could have invented the Hush-A-Phone funnel itself. It did not; it took outsiders to begin changing the system, even in small ways.

Hush-A-Phone was followed by more sweeping outside innovations. During the 1940s, inventor Tom Carter sold and installed two-way radios for companies with workers out in the field. As his business caught on, he realized how much more helpful it would be to be able to hook up a base station’s radio to a telephone so that faraway executives could be patched in to the front lines. He invented the Carterfone to do just that in 1959 and sold over 3,500 units. AT&T told its customers that they were not allowed to use Carterfones, because these devices hooked up to the network itself, unlike the Hush-A-Phone, which connected only to the telephone handset. Carter petitioned against the rule and won.5 Mindful of the ideals behind the Hush-A-Phone decision, the FCC agreed that so long as the network was not harmed, AT&T could not block new devices, even ones that directly hooked up to the phone network.

These decisions paved the way for advances invented and distributed by third parties, advances that were the exceptions to the comparative innovation desert of the telephone system. Outsiders introduced devices such as the answering machine, the fax machine, and the cordless phone that were rapidly adopted.6 The most important advance, however, was the dial-up modem, a crucial piece of hardware bridging consumer information processors and the world of computer networks, whether proprietary or the Internet.

With the advent of the modem, people could acquire plain terminals or PCs and connect them to central servers over a telephone line. Users could dial up whichever service they wanted: a call to the bank’s network for banking, followed by a call to a more generic “information service” for interactive weather and news.

The development of this capability illustrates the relationships among the standard layers that can be said to exist in a network: at the bottom are the physical wires, with services above, and then applications, and finally content and social interaction. If AT&T had prevailed in the Carterfone proceeding, it would have been able to insist that its customers use the phone network only for traditional point-to-point telephone calls. The phone network would have been repurposed for data solely at AT&T’s discretion and pace. Because AT&T lost, others’ experiments in data transmission could move forward. The physical layer had become generative, and this generativity meant that additional types of activity in higher layers were made possible. While AT&T continued collecting rents from the phone network’s use whether for voice or modem calls, both amateurs working for fun and entrepreneurs seeking new business opportunities got into the online services business.



The first online services built on top of AT&T’s phone network were natural extensions of the 1960s IBM-model minicomputer usage within businesses: one centrally managed machine to which employees’ dumb terminals connected. Networks like CompuServe, The Source, America Online, Prodigy, GEnie, and MCI Mail gave their subscribers access to content and services deployed solely by the network providers themselves.7

In 1983, a home computer user with a telephone line and a CompuServe subscription could pursue a variety of pastimes8—reading an Associated Press news feed, chatting in typed sentences with other CompuServe subscribers through a “CB radio simulator,” sending private e-mail to fellow subscribers, messaging on bulletin boards, and playing rudimentary multiplayer games.9 But if a subscriber or an outside company wanted to develop a new service that might appeal to CompuServe subscribers, it could not automatically do so. Even if it knew how to program on CompuServe’s mainframes, an aspiring provider needed CompuServe’s approval. CompuServe entered into development agreements with outside content providers10 like the Associated Press and, in some cases, with outside programmers,11 but between 1984 and 1994, as the service grew from one hundred thousand subscribers to almost two million, its core functionalities remained largely unchanged.12

Innovation within services like CompuServe took place at the center of the network rather than at its fringes. PCs were to be only the delivery vehicles for data sent to customers, and users were not themselves expected to program or to be able to receive services from anyone other than their central service provider. CompuServe depended on the phone network’s physical layer generativity to get the last mile to a subscriber’s house, but CompuServe as a service was not open to third-party tinkering.


Why would CompuServe hold to the same line that AT&T tried to draw? After all, the economic model for almost every service was the connect charge: a per-minute fee for access rather than advertising or transactional revenue.13 With mere connect time as the goal, one might think activity-garnering user-contributed software running on the service would be welcome, just as user-contributed content in the CB simulator or on a message board produced revenue if it drew other users in. Why would the proprietary services not harness the potential generativity of their offerings by making their own servers more open to third-party coding? Some networks’ mainframes permitted an area in which subscribers could write and execute their own software,14 but in each case restrictions were quickly put in place to prevent other users from running that software online. The “programming areas” became relics, and the Hollerith model prevailed.

Perhaps the companies surmised that little value could come to them from user and third-party tinkering if there were no formal relationship between those outside programmers and the information service’s in-house developers. Perhaps they thought it too risky: a single mainframe or set of mainframes running a variety of applications could not risk being compromised by poorly coded or downright rogue applications.

Perhaps they simply could not grasp the potential to produce new works that could be found among an important subset of their subscribers—all were instead thought of solely as consumers. Or they may have thought that all the important applications for online consumer services had already been invented—news, weather, bulletin boards, chat, e-mail, and the rudiments of shopping.


In the early 1990s the future seemed to be converging on a handful of corporate-run networks that did not interconnect. There was competition of a sort that recalls AT&T’s early competitors: firms with their own separate wires going to homes and businesses. Some people maintained an e-mail address on each major online service simply so that they could interact with friends and business contacts regardless of the service the others selected. Each information service put together a proprietary blend of offerings, mediated by software produced by the service. Each service had the power to decide who could subscribe, under what terms, and what content would be allowed or disallowed, either generally (should there be a forum about gay rights?) or specifically (should this particular message about gay rights be deleted?). For example, Prodigy sought a reputation as a family-friendly service and was more aggressive about deleting sensitive user-contributed content; CompuServe was more of a free-for-all.15

But none seemed prepared to budge from the business models built around their mainframes, and, as explained in detail in Chapter Four, works by scholars such as Mary Benner and Michael Tushman shed some light on why. Mature firms can acquire “stabilizing organizational routines”: “internal biases for certainty and predictable results [which] favor exploitative innovation at the expense of exploratory innovation.”16 And so far as the proprietary services could tell, they had only one competitor other than each other: generative PCs that used their modems to call other PCs instead of the centralized services. Exactly how proprietary networks would have evolved if left only to that competition will never be known, for CompuServe and its proprietary counterparts were soon overwhelmed by the Internet and the powerful PC browsers used to access it.17 But it is useful to recall how those PC-to-PC networks worked, and who built them.


Even before PC owners had an opportunity to connect to the Internet, they had an alternative to paying for appliancized proprietary networks. Several people wrote BBS (“bulletin board system”) software that could turn any PC into its own information service.18 Lacking ready arrangements with institutional content providers like the Associated Press, computers running BBS software largely depended on their callers to provide information as well as to consume it. Vibrant message boards, some with thousands of regular participants, sprang up. But they were limited by the physical properties and business model of the phone system that carried their data. Even though the Carterfone decision permitted the use of modems to connect users’ computers, a PC hosting a BBS was limited to one incoming call at a time unless its owner wanted to pay for more phone lines and some arcane multiplexing equipment.19 With many interested users having to share one incoming line to a BBS, it was the opposite of the proprietary connect time model: users were asked to spend as little time connected as possible.

PC generativity provided a way to ameliorate some of these limitations. A PC owner named Tom Jennings wrote FIDOnet in the spring of 1984.20 FIDOnet was BBS software that could be installed on many PCs. Each FIDOnet BBS could call another in the FIDO network and they would exchange their respective message stores. That way, users could post messages to a single PC’s BBS and find it copied automatically, relay-style, to hundreds of other BBSs around the world, with replies slowly working their way around to all the FIDOnet BBSs. In the fall of 1984 FIDOnet claimed 160 associated PCs; by the early 1990s it boasted 32,000, and many other programmers had made contributions to improve Jennings’s work.21

Of course, FIDOnet was the ultimate kludge, simultaneously a testament to the distributed ingenuity of those who tinker with generative technologies and a crude workaround that was bound to collapse under its own weight. Jennings found that his network did not scale well, especially since it was built on top of a physical network whose primary use was to allow two people, not many computers, to talk to each other. As the FIDOnet community grew bigger, it was no longer a community—at least not a set of people who each knew one another. Some new FIDOnet installations had the wrong dial-in numbers for their peers, which meant that computers were calling people instead of other computers, redialing every time a computer did not answer.

“To impress on you the seriousness of wrong numbers in the node list,” Jennings wrote, “imagine you are a poor old lady, who every single night is getting phone calls EVERY TWO MINUTES AT 4:00AM, no one says anything, then hangs up. This actually happened; I would sit up and watch when there was mail that didn’t go out for a week or two, and I’d pick up the phone after dialing, and was left in the embarrasing [sic ] position of having to explain bulletin boards to an extremely tired, extremely annoyed person.”22

In some ways, this was the fear AT&T had expressed to the FCC during the Carterfone controversy. When AT&T was no longer allowed to perform quality control on the devices hooking up to the network, problems could arise and AT&T would reasonably disclaim responsibility. Jennings and others worked to fix software problems as they arose with new releases, but as FIDOnet authors wrestled with the consequences of their catastrophic success, it was clear that the proprietary services were better suited for mainstream consumers. They were more reliable, better advertised, and easier to use. But FIDOnet demonstrates that amateur innovation—cobbling together bits and pieces from volunteers—can produce a surprisingly functional and effective result—one that has been rediscovered today in some severely bandwidth-constrained areas of the world.23

Those with Jennings’s urge to code soon had an alternative outlet, one that even the proprietary networks did not foresee as a threat until far too late: the Internet, which appeared to combine the reliability of the pay networks with the ethos and flexibility of user-written FIDOnet.


Just as the general-purpose PC beat leased and appliancized counterparts that could perform only their manufacturers’ applications and nothing else, the Internet first linked to and then functionally replaced a host of proprietary consumer network services.24

The Internet’s founding is pegged to a message sent on October 29, 1969. It was transmitted from UCLA to Stanford by computers hooked up to prototype “Interface Message Processors” (IMPs).25 A variety of otherwise-incompatible computer systems existed at the time—just as they do now—and the IMP was conceived as a way to connect them.26 (The UCLA programmers typed “log” to begin logging in to the Stanford computer. The Stanford computer crashed after the second letter, making “Lo” the first Internet message.)

From its start, the Internet was oriented differently from the proprietary networks and their ethos of bundling and control. Its goals were in some ways more modest. The point of building the network was not to offer a particular set of information or services like news or weather to customers, for which the network was necessary but incidental. Rather, it was to connect anyone on the network to anyone else. It was up to the people connected to figure out why they wanted to be in touch in the first place; the network would simply carry data between the two points.


The Internet thus has more in common with FIDOnet than it does with CompuServe, yet it has proven far more useful and flexible than any of the proprietary networks. Most of the Internet’s architects were academics, amateurs like Tom Jennings in the sense that they undertook their work for the innate interest of it, but professionals in the sense that they could devote themselves full time to its development. They secured crucial government research funding and other support to lease some of the original raw telecommunications facilities that would form the backbone of the new network, helping to make the protocols they developed on paper testable in a real-world environment. The money supporting this was relatively meager—on the order of tens of millions of dollars from 1970 to 1990, and far less than a single popular startup raised in an initial public offering once the Internet had gone mainstream. (For example, ten-month-old, money-losing Yahoo! raised $35 million at its 1996 initial public offering.27 On the first day it started trading, the offered chunk of the company hit over $100 million in value, for a total corporate valuation of more than $1 billion.28

The Internet’s design reflects the situation and outlook of the Internet’s framers: they were primarily academic researchers and moonlighting corporate engineers who commanded no vast resources to implement a global network.29 The early Internet was implemented at university computer science departments, U.S. government research units,30 and select telecommunications companies with an interest in cutting-edge network research.31 These users might naturally work on advances in bandwidth management or tools for researchers to use for discussion with each other, including informal, non-work-related discussions. Unlike, say, FedEx, whose wildly successful paper transport network depended initially on the singularly focused application of venture capital to design and create an efficient physical infrastructure for delivery, those individuals thinking about the Internet in the 1960s and ’70s planned a network that would cobble together existing research and government networks and then wring as much use as possible from them.32


The design of the Internet reflected not only the financial constraints of its creators, but also their motives. They had little concern for controlling the network or its users’ behavior.33 The network’s design was publicly available and freely shared from the earliest moments of its development. If designers disagreed over how a particular protocol should work, they would argue until one had persuaded most of the interested parties. The motto among them was, “We reject: kings, presidents, and voting. We believe in: rough consensus and running code.”34 Energy spent running the network was seen as a burden rather than a boon. Keeping options open for later network use and growth was seen as sensible, and abuse of the network by those joining it without an explicit approval process was of little worry since the people using it were the very people designing it—engineers bound by their desire to see the network work.35

The Internet was so different in character and audience from the proprietary networks that few even saw them as competing with one another. However, by the early 1990s, the Internet had proven its use enough that some large firms were eager to begin using it for data transfers for their enterprise applications. It helped that the network was subsidized by the U.S. government, allowing flat-rate pricing for its users. The National Science Foundation (NSF) managed the Internet backbone and asked that it be used only for noncommercial purposes, but by 1991 was eager to see it privatized.36 Internet designers devised an entirely new protocol so that the backbone no longer needed to be centrally managed by the NSF or a single private successor, paving the way for multiple private network providers to bid to take up chunks of the old backbone, with no one vendor wholly controlling it.37

Consumer applications were originally nowhere to be found, but that changed after the Internet began accepting commercial interconnections without network research pretexts in 1991. The public at large was soon able to sign up, which opened development of Internet applications and destinations to a broad, commercially driven audience.

No major PC producer immediately moved to design Internet Protocol compatibility into its PC operating system. PCs could dial in to a single computer like that of CompuServe or AOL and communicate with it, but the ability to run Internet-aware applications on the PC itself was limited. To attach to the Internet, one would need a minicomputer or workstation of the sort typically found within university computer science departments—and usually used with direct network connections rather than modems and phone lines.

A single hobbyist took advantage of PC generativity and forged the missing technological link. Peter Tattam, an employee in the psychology department of the University of Tasmania, wrote Trumpet Winsock, a program that allowed owners of PCs running Microsoft Windows to forge a point-to-point Internet connection with the dial-up servers run by nascent Internet Service Providers (ISPs).38 With no formal marketing or packaging, Tattam distributed Winsock as shareware. He asked people to try out the program for free and to send him $25 if they kept using it beyond a certain tryout period.39

Winsock was a runaway success, and in the mid-1990s it was the primary way that Windows users could access the Internet. Even before there was wide public access to an Internet through which to distribute his software, he claimed hundreds of thousands of registrations for it,40 and many more people were no doubt using it and declining to register. Consumer accessibility to Internet-enabled applications, coupled with the development of graphic-friendly World Wide Web protocols and the PC browsers to support them—both initially noncommercial ventures—marked the beginning of the end of proprietary information services and jerry-rigged systems like FIDOnet. Consumers began to explore the Internet, and those who wanted to reach this group, such as commercial merchants and advertising-driven content providers, found it easier to set up outposts there than through the negotiated gates of the proprietary services.


Microsoft bundled the functionality of Winsock with late versions of Windows 95.41 After that, anyone buying a PC could hook up to the Internet instead of only to AOL’s or CompuServe’s walled gardens. Proprietary information services scrambled to reorient their business models away from corralled content and to ones of accessibility to the wider Internet.42 Network providers offering a bundle of content along with access increasingly registered their appeal simply as ISPs. They became mere on-ramps to the Internet, with their users branching out to quickly thriving Internet destinations that had no relationship to the ISP for their programs and services.43 For example, CompuServe’s “Electronic Mall,” an e-commerce service intended as the exclusive means by which outside vendors could sell products to CompuServe subscribers,44 disappeared under the avalanche of individual Web sites selling goods to anyone with Internet access.

The resulting Internet was a network that no one in particular owned and that anyone could join. Of course, joining required the acquiescence of at least one current Internet participant, but if one was turned away at one place, there were innumerable other points of entry, and commercial ISPs emerged to provide service at commoditized rates.45

The bundled proprietary model, designed expressly for consumer uptake, had been defeated by the Internet model, designed without consumer demands in mind. Proprietary services tried to have everything under one roof and to vet each of their offerings, just as IBM leased its general-purpose computers to its 1960s customers and wholly managed them, tailoring them to those customers’ perceived needs in an ordered way. The Internet had no substantive offerings at all—but also no meaningful barriers to someone else’s setting up shop online. It was a model similar to that of the PC, a platform rather than a fully finished edifice, one open to a set of offerings from anyone who wanted to code for it.


Recall that our endpoint devices can possess varying levels of accessibility to outside coding. Where they are found along that spectrum creates certain basic trade-offs. A less generative device like an information appliance or a general-purpose computer managed by a single vendor can work more smoothly because there is only one cook over the stew, and it can be optimized to a particular perceived purpose. But it cannot be easily adapted for new uses. A more generative device like a PC makes innovation easier and produces a broader range of applications because the audience of people who can adapt it to new uses is much greater. Moreover, these devices can at first be simpler because they can be improved upon later; at the point they leave the factory they do not have to be complete. That is why the first hobbyist PCs could be so inexpensive: they had only the basics, enough so that others could write software to make them truly useful. But it is harder to maintain a consistent experience with such a device because its behavior is then shaped by multiple software authors not acting in concert. Shipping an incomplete device also requires a certain measure of trust: trust that at least some third-party software writers will write good and useful code, and trust that users of the device will be able to access and sort out the good and useful code from the bad and even potentially harmful code.

These same trade-offs existed between proprietary services and the Internet, and Internet design, like its generative PC counterpart, tilted toward the simple and basic. The Internet’s framers made simplicity a core value—a risky bet with a high payoff. The bet was risky because a design whose main focus is simplicity may omit elaboration that solves certain foreseeable problems. The simple design that the Internet’s framers settled upon makes sense only with a set of principles that go beyond mere engineering. These principles are not obvious ones—for example, the proprietary networks were not designed with them in mind—and their power depends on assumptions about people that, even if true, could change. The most important are what we might label the procrastination principle and the trust-your-neighbor approach.

The procrastination principle rests on the assumption that most problems confronting a network can be solved later or by others. It says that the network should not be designed to do anything that can be taken care of by its users. Its origins can be found in a 1984 paper by Internet architects David Clark, David Reed, and Jerry Saltzer. In it they coined the notion of an “end-to-end argument” to indicate that most features in a network ought to be implemented at its computer endpoints—and by those endpoints’ computer programmers—rather than “in the middle,” taken care of by the network itself, and designed by the network architects.46 The paper makes a pure engineering argument, explaining that any features not universally useful should not be implemented, in part because not implementing these features helpfully prevents the generic network from becoming tilted toward certain uses. Once the network was optimized for one use, they reasoned, it might not easily be put to other uses that may have different requirements.

The end-to-end argument stands for modularity in network design: it allows the network nerds, both protocol designers and ISP implementers, to do their work without giving a thought to network hardware or PC software. More generally, the procrastination principle is an invitation to others to overcome the network’s shortcomings, and to continue adding to its uses.

Another fundamental assumption, reflected repeatedly in various Internet design decisions that tilted toward simplicity, is about trust. The people using this network of networks and configuring its endpoints had to be trusted to be more or less competent and pure enough at heart that they would not intentionally or negligently disrupt the network. The network’s simplicity meant that many features found in other networks to keep them secure from fools and knaves would be absent. Banks would be simpler and more efficient if they did not need vaults for the cash but could instead keep it in accessible bins in plain view. Our houses would be simpler if we did not have locks on our doors, and it would be ideal to catch a flight by following an unimpeded path from the airport entrance to the gate—the way access to many trains and buses persists today.

An almost casual trust for the users of secured institutions and systems is rarely found: banks are designed with robbers in mind. Yet the assumption that network participants can be trusted, and indeed that they will be participants rather than customers, infuses the Internet’s design at nearly every level. Anyone can become part of the network so long as any existing member of the network is ready to share access. And once someone is on the network, the network’s design is intended to allow all data to be treated the same way: it can be sent from anyone to anyone, and it can be in support of any application developed by an outsider.

Two examples illustrate these principles and their trade-offs: the Internet’s lack of structure to manage personal identity, and its inability to guarantee transmission speed between two points.

There are lots of reasons for a network to be built to identify the people using it, rather than just the machines found on it. Proprietary networks like CompuServe and AOL were built just that way. They wanted to offer different services to different people, and to charge them accordingly, so they ensured that the very first prompt a user encountered when connecting to the network was to type in a prearranged user ID and password. No ID, no network access. This had the added benefit of accountability: anyone engaging in bad behavior on the network could have access terminated by whoever managed the IDs.

The Internet, however, has no such framework; connectivity is much more readily shared. User identification is left to individual Internet users and servers to sort out if they wish to demand credentials of some kind from those with whom they communicate. For example, a particular Web site might demand that a user create an ID and password in order to gain access to its contents.

This basic design omission has led to the well-documented headaches of identifying wrongdoers online, from those who swap copyrighted content to hackers who attack the network itself.47 At best, a source of bad bits might be traced to a single Internet address. But that address might be shared by more than one person, or it might represent a mere point of access by someone at yet another address—a link in a chain of addresses that can recede into the distance. Because the user does not have to log in the way he or she would to use a proprietary service, identity is obscured. Some celebrate this feature. It can be seen as a bulwark against oppressive governments who wish to monitor their Internet-surfing populations. As many scholars have explored, whether one is for or against anonymity online, a design decision bearing on it, made first as an engineering matter, can end up with major implications for social interaction and regulation.48

Another example of the trade-offs of procrastination and trust can be found in the Internet’s absence of “quality of service,” a guarantee of bandwidth between one point and another. The Internet was designed as a network of networks—a bucket-brigade partnership in which network neighbors pass along each other’s packets for perhaps ten, twenty, or even thirty hops between two points.49 Internet Service Providers might be able to maximize their bandwidth for one or two hops along this path, but the cobbled-together nature of a typical Internet link from a source all the way to a destination means that there is no easy way to guarantee speed the whole way through. Too many intermediaries exist in between, and their relationship may be one of a handshake rather than a contract: “you pass my packets and I’ll pass yours.”50 An endpoint several hops from a critical network intermediary will have no contract or arrangement at all with the original sender or the sender’s ISP. The person at the endpoint must instead rely on falling dominos of trust. The Internet is thus known as a “best efforts” network, sometimes rephrased as “Send it and pray” or “Every packet an adventure.”51

The Internet’s protocols thus assume that all packets of data are intended to be delivered with equal urgency (or perhaps, more accurately, lack of urgency). This assumption of equality is a fiction because some packets are valuable only if they can make it to their destination in a timely way. Delay an e-mail by a minute or two and no one may be the poorer; delay a stream of music too long and there is an interruption in playback. The network could be built to prioritize a certain data stream on the basis of its sender, its recipient, or the nature of the stream’s contents. Yet the Internet’s framers and implementers have largely clung to simplicity, omitting an architecture that would label and then speed along “special delivery” packets despite the uses it might have and the efficiencies it could achieve. As the backbone grew, it did not seem to matter. Those with lots of content to share have found ways to stage data “near” its destination for others, and the network has proved itself remarkably effective even in areas, like video and audio transmission, in which it initially fell short.52 The future need not resemble the past, however, and a robust debate exists today about the extent to which ISPs ought to be able to prioritize certain data streams over others by favoring some destinations or particular service providers over others.53 (That debate is joined in a later chapter.)

* * *

The assumptions made by the Internet’s framers and embedded in the network—that most problems could be solved later and by others, and that those others themselves would be interested in solving rather than creating problems—arose naturally within the research environment that gave birth to the Internet. For all the pettiness sometimes associated with academia, there was a collaborative spirit present in computer science research labs, in part because the project of designing and implementing a new network—connecting people—can benefit so readily from collaboration.

It is one thing for the Internet to work the way it was designed when deployed among academics whose raison d’être was to build functioning networks. But the network managed an astonishing leap as it continued to work when expanded into the general populace, one which did not share the world-view that informed the engineers’ designs. Indeed, it not only continued to work, but experienced spectacular growth in the uses to which it was put. It is as if the bizarre social and economic configuration of the quasi-anarchist Burning Man festival turned out to function in the middle of a city.54 What works in a desert is harder to imagine in Manhattan: people crashing on each others’ couches, routinely sharing rides and food, and loosely bartering things of value. At the turn of the twenty-first century, then, the developed world has found itself with a wildly generative information technology environment.

Today we enjoy an abundance of PCs hosting routine, if not always-on, broadband Internet connections.55 The generative PC has become intertwined with the generative Internet, and the brief era during which information appliances and appliancized networks flourished—Brother word processors and CompuServe—might appear to be an evolutionary dead end.

Those alternatives are not dead. They have been only sleeping. To see why, we now turn to the next step of the pattern that emerges at each layer of generative technologies: initial success triggers expansion, which is followed by boundary, one that grows out of the very elements that make that layer appealing. The Internet flourished by beginning in a backwater with few expectations, allowing its architecture to be simple and fluid. The PC had parallel hobbyist backwater days. Each was first adopted in an ethos of sharing and tinkering, with profit ancillary, and each was then embraced and greatly improved by commercial forces. But each is now facing problems that call for some form of intervention, a tricky situation since intervention is not easy—and, if undertaken, might ruin the very environment it is trying to save. The next chapter explains this process at the technological layer: why the status quo is drawing to a close, confronting us—policy-makers, entrepreneurs, technology providers, and, most importantly, Internet and PC users—with choices we can no longer ignore.

Posted by The Editors on March 5, 2008
Tags: Uncategorized

Total comments on this page: 171

How to read/write comments

Comments on specific paragraphs:

Click the icon to the right of a paragraph

  • If there are no prior comments there, a comment entry form will appear automatically
  • If there are already comments, you will see them and the form will be at the bottom of the thread

Comments on the page as a whole:

Click the icon to the right of the page title (works the same as paragraphs)


No comments yet.

Anonymous on paragraph 1:

Yes, Apple ][, it’s a ‘personal’ computer.

May 2, 2008 9:10 pm
robert forenza on paragraph 37:

The key point here is needed more now then ever and that is “little concern for controlling the network or it’s users” I feel that this is akin to freedom of thought. More importantly open networks, open data, open user identity, no secrets. Users will behave do quality work because they are netliving in the open-this would lead to alot more then rough consensus but toward quality consensus.

May 14, 2008 7:27 pm
Bartimaeus on paragraph 2:

That would have been a strange world indeed.

June 3, 2008 4:13 am
Bartimaeus on paragraph 10:

Sounds like AT+T had ossified a bit.

June 3, 2008 4:15 am
Orval on whole page :

Ah, I remember the shiiiiiiiiish-shuuuuuush of the modem so well. And garish BBS logins. Kind of miss it all, really.

June 8, 2008 2:10 pm
Jim Richard on paragraph 10:

AT&T had restrictions well into the 1980’s .. If you wanted to use a modem other then an AT&T DataPhone, you had to lease the Data Access Arrangement (DAA) from AT&T. The DAA is a fairly simple electronic interface between the modem and the network, that is designed to electrically isolate the modem from the network to prevent “damage to the network”. In the early 1980’s the only place you could get a certified DAA was from AT&T. 3rd party vendors were not allowed to incorporate them into their own designs. While if you leased a DataPhone, the circuit was built in.

July 7, 2008 5:59 pm
Jim Richard on paragraph 19:

The reason was, at the time there were no alternatives…. The internet was not available for commercial use. Even though PC’s were fairly ubiquitous by 1983, large scale processing power wasn’t, you still needed mainframes to do anything that scaled up. Mainframes, have great scalability but also have great inhibitors due to their cost. Around 1983, I was paying ~$1.65 per cpu second. We are talking about millions of dollars at stake. Everything had to be done very carefully or not at all. This was why PC’s started to boom around that time. In this time frame , we put PC’s on our programmers desks ( 3-5K dollars per, in 1980 dollars) just to cut down our Mainframe CPU costs.


July 7, 2008 6:12 pm
Jim Richard on paragraph 16:

Prodigy, was something completely different. It was what the Web would become, only about 10 years before it’s time. At the time all of the other services were totally text based. Prodigy did amazing things, though at a cost! Yes it was mainframe based ( all services were), and centrally controlled ( all services were). But it was “Graphic” in nature. This was a first, it was called video text, and it predated windows, ( at least in beta). It was done with In-House written technology called TBOL (trintex basic object language). That ran on an hierarchy of Mini-Computers running in local “Bunkers)”, IBM’s TPF ( same as SABRE), and DB2 (IBMs relational database system).

For it’s day Prodigy was a major innovation. Windows didn’t exist, DOS ruled the realm. The Prodigy diskette, kicked DOS off the system and loaded a propriety OS that understood TBOL. There were data cache’s up and down the line to speed delivery of content. The TBOL content was not graphic in nature instead it was instructions on how to display Graphics on the target device. Thus optimizing a 2400 baud connection, while enabling graphic delivery.

I know, I was there in 1987. I had a compuserve account from 1988-2002, I got my first Internet account with “Chris.com” AKA XO communications in 1992, which was where I learned UNIX on their Shell Accounts.

July 7, 2008 6:37 pm
L. Rogers on paragraph 2:

The author paints an interesting dystopian picture speculation, but alternative histories (along the lines of ‘what if the allies had not won WWII’ & etc.) seem to assume that no other serendipitous factors would have turned the arc of social/technological development to an outcome not predicted by its antecedents. Heck – perhaps with this scenario we would all be zipping along on our personal Brother (TM) jetpacks now?

July 24, 2008 11:13 pm
L. Rogers on paragraph 22:

Another historical case study in this context would France Telecom’s Minitel (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Minitel). It would be interesting to imagine an alternate history in which a socialist bureaucracy heavily influenced the early development of networked systems

July 24, 2008 11:48 pm
Deb :

Honestly it sounds more efficient and effective than what we had here. Multiple accounts just so you can connect to each service? Talk about a muddled mess…

September 10, 2010 1:09 am

[…] Chapter two of The Future of the Internet and How to Stop it, Jonathan Zittrain “illustrates the relationships among the standard layers that can be said to […]

September 26, 2009 8:35 pm

[…] as Jonathan Zittrain notes in “Battle of the Networks,” (Chapter two of The Future of the Internet, and How to Stop It), that used to be the case. […]

September 28, 2009 5:15 pm

[…] the stark contrast in how each approached his discussion of technology. Zittrain’s article, “Battle of the Networks” , from The Future of the Internet and How to Stop It was very obviously socially deterministic, an […]

September 28, 2009 8:18 pm
Esovistinscic on paragraph -1:

Hi !.
You may , probably curious to know how one can collect a huge starting capital .
There is no need to invest much at first. You may start earning with as small sum of money as 20-100 dollars.

AimTrust is what you need
The company incorporates an offshore structure with advanced asset management technologies in production and delivery of pipes for oil and gas.

It is based in Panama with offices everywhere: In USA, Canada, Cyprus.
Do you want to become an affluent person?
That`s your choice That`s what you desire!

I`m happy and lucky, I began to get real money with the help of this company,
and I invite you to do the same. If it gets down to choose a proper companion utilizes your money in a right way - that`s the AimTrust!.
I take now up to 2G every day, and my first deposit was 1 grand only!
It`s easy to start , just click this link http://bankinfodata.net and go! Let`s take this option together to become rich

November 23, 2009 2:18 pm
Ben on paragraph 43:

MSN began back in 1993-1994. It was put on hold because of the DoJ investigations. Developers had access to it for a while. MSN can be considered of the “old” CompuServe model.

July 14, 2010 6:02 pm
Deb on paragraph 35:

As is almost always the case, the government has been instrumental in the development of our modern society. For all the complaints of bureaucracy and inefficiency (most of which are unfounded), this is just another example of how the private sector was spinning its wheels while the true innovators were a combination of ideas from the universities (those oft-maligned “ivory tower intellectuals”) and money from Uncle Sam, who unlike the corporations saw the value of what these men were proposing.

September 10, 2010 1:16 am
Kwametrade on paragraph 9:

Shutup and listen ATT

September 20, 2010 1:34 pm

[…] are busy” message. In ways large and small, what animates Internet protocol design is a procrastination principle: if something can work well, it doesn’t have to be perfect, and not every problem or limit […]

January 10, 2011 6:27 pm

[…] Geoff, em 2008, analisa com precisão incomum a perspectiva do insucesso do IPv6. Indica em uma avalição segura e, certamente com base em seus estudos sistemáticos incluindo um recente[4] – no qual o Brasil não possui expressividade -, que devemos levar de 10 a 20 anos para nos livrar da dependência integral do IPv4. Talvez menos, se houver uma injeção de ânimo aos que lidam com a infraestrutura da Internet reagindo ao princípio da procrastinaçãodefinição. […]

January 13, 2011 5:14 am
sex shop on whole page :

Definitely imagine that which you stated. Your favourite justification seemed to be on the net the simplest thing to take into accout of. I say to you, I certainly get annoyed while people consider worries that they just do not realize about. You controlled to hit the nail upon the top as smartly defined out the whole thing with no need side effect , other folks can take a signal. Will probably be back to get more. Thanks

September 12, 2011 3:10 am
Barbie cooking games on whole page :

I really love the passion that I see in your article, i love the way you look at the problem, and further more the way that you approach ideas. This make me think if I`m doing the right way. Good to learn from a professional

September 30, 2011 5:11 am
Anonymous on whole page :

The heart of your writing whilst appearing agreeable initially, did not really settle properly with me after some time. Somewhere throughout the paragraphs you were able to make me a believer but just for a short while. I however have got a problem with your leaps in logic and one might do nicely to fill in all those gaps. In the event that you can accomplish that, I would surely end up being fascinated.

November 3, 2011 10:54 am
Rachel Whicker on whole page :

Toller Waren. Sicher nicht verkehrt, einander inklusive dieser Thematik intensiver auseinander zusetzen. Ich werde bestimmt jene nächsten Beitraege in dem fach Auge behalten.

November 16, 2011 1:52 pm
opakowania kartonowe on whole page :

Very interesting info !Perfect just what I was searching for!

November 26, 2011 5:15 am
mental dart training on whole page :

I could have ever understood why somebody has dealt so qualifierly with this effect. Now open up to me full locomote. Genuinely interesting your thesis. Although my West Germanic language is non so skilled, your theme I can realize. Hold up the Light.

February 7, 2012 6:52 am
Cassondra Hetchman on whole page :

Deference to author , some excellent information .

March 21, 2012 10:21 am
Aimee Brinius on whole page :

I am glad that I discovered this site , just the right information that I was searching for! .

March 23, 2012 2:50 pm
kartony on whole page :

I too conceive hence , perfectly composed post! .

March 31, 2012 3:39 am
Ecombase Download on whole page :

Aw, this was a really nice post. In idea I want to put in writing like this moreover – taking time and actual effort to make an excellent article… however what can I say… I procrastinate alot and by no means seem to get something done.

May 1, 2012 11:51 am
Lawanna Lauderback on whole page :

Along with everything that appears to be building within this area, a significant percentage of viewpoints happen to be rather exciting. Having said that, I am sorry, but I can not give credence to your entire idea, all be it exhilarating none the less. It appears to everybody that your remarks are not completely justified and in actuality you are yourself not entirely convinced of your argument. In any event I did take pleasure in reading it.

July 24, 2012 1:25 am
Tyson Erhardt on whole page :

Some truly select blog posts on this internet site , saved to bookmarks .

July 25, 2012 11:24 am
Royce Burak on whole page :

maybe my letters are planning to Steve C!

April 4, 2013 11:22 pm
Corinna Rend on whole page :

Hello There. I identified your blog site employing msn. It is an really well penned guide. I will be certain to bookmark it and return to learn more within your valuable info. Thanks for that submit. I’ll surely return.

May 14, 2013 7:31 am
website on whole page :

Greatest pizza I’ve had was in Vicenza Italy and I have had a lot of pizza all more than Italy. Am i able to remember the identify in the place? Noooo, but when I drove all over very long adequate, I would discover it.

May 24, 2013 10:21 pm
Hobert Weitkamp on whole page :

I’d personally hope that I’m healthy in both mind, body, and spirit. I might like to travel the earth with my friends and family. That would be lovely.

May 27, 2013 4:41 pm
www.1001rug.com on whole page :

Thank you ever so for you blog post.Really thank you! Want more.

May 29, 2013 6:45 am
www.climatechangebilbao.net on whole page :

I really enjoy the article post.Thanks Again. Much obliged.

May 29, 2013 7:01 am
Cristopher Heiberger on whole page :

Please let me know if you’re looking for a article author for your blog. You have some really great articles and I think I would be a good asset. If you ever want to take some of the load off, I’d really like to write some articles for your blog in exchange for a link back to mine. Please shoot me an email if interested. Many thanks!|Have you ever thought about including a little bit more than just your articles? I mean, what you say is important and all. But imagine if you added some great pictures or videos to give your posts more, “pop”! Your content is excellent but with pics and videos, this blog could definitely be one of the most beneficial in its niche. Amazing blog!|Fascinating blog! Is your theme custom made or did you download it from somewhere? A design like yours with a few simple tweeks would really make my blog shine. Please let me know where you got your design. Many thanks|Hey there would you mind sharing which blog platform you’re working with? I’m going to start my own blog soon but I’m having a hard time choosing between BlogEngine/Wordpress/B2evolution and Drupal. The reason I ask is because your design seems different then most blogs and I’m looking for something unique. P.S My apologies for being off-topic but I had to ask!|Hey there just wanted to give you a quick heads up. The text in your post seem to be running off the screen in Safari. I’m not sure if this is a formatting issue or something to do with web browser compatibility but I thought I’d post to let you know. The design look great though! Hope you get the problem resolved soon. Cheers|With havin so much written content do you ever run into any problems of plagorism or copyright violation? My site has a lot of completely unique content I’ve either authored myself or outsourced but it appears a lot of it is popping it up all over the web without my authorization. Do you know any solutions to help reduce content from being ripped off? I’d truly appreciate it.|Have you ever considered writing an e-book or guest authoring on other sites? I have a blog based upon on the same topics you discuss and would love to have you share some stories/information. I know my visitors would appreciate your work. If you’re even remotely interested, feel free to shoot me an email.|Hey! Someone in my Myspace group shared this website with us so I came to look it over. I’m definitely loving the information. I’m book-marking and will be tweeting this to my followers! Excellent blog and excellent style and design.|Great blog! Do you have any recommendations for aspiring writers? I’m hoping to start my own blog soon but I’m a little lost on everything. Would you recommend starting with a free platform like Wordpress or go for a paid option? There are so many choices out there that I’m totally confused .. Any tips? Thanks a lot!|My programmer is trying to convince me to move to .net from PHP. I have always disliked the idea because of the costs. But he’s tryiong none the less. I’ve been using Movable-type on a number of websites for about a year and am anxious about switching to another platform. I have heard excellent things about blogengine.net. Is there a way I can import all my wordpress content into it? Any kind of help would be greatly appreciated!|Does your site have a contact page? I’m having problems locating it but, I’d like to shoot you an email. I’ve got some creative ideas for your blog you might be interested in hearing. Either way, great site and I look forward to seeing it expand over time.|It’s a shame you don’t have a donate button! I’d without a doubt donate to this brilliant blog! I suppose for now i’ll settle for book-marking and adding your RSS feed to my Google account. I look forward to new updates and will share this website with my Facebook group. Chat soon!|Greetings from Colorado! I’m bored to death at work so I decided to browse your website on my iphone during lunch break. I enjoy the information you provide here and can’t wait to take a look when I get home. I’m surprised at how fast your blog loaded on my phone .. I’m not even using WIFI, just 3G .. Anyhow, awesome blog!|Greetings! I know this is kinda off topic however , I’d figured I’d ask. Would you be interested in trading links or maybe guest writing a blog article or vice-versa? My site goes over a lot of the same topics as yours and I feel we could greatly benefit from each other. If you happen to be interested feel free to shoot me an e-mail. I look forward to hearing from you! Excellent blog by the way!

May 29, 2013 2:29 pm
sexy on whole page :

Thanks for giving your ideas right here. The other thing is that whenever a problem occurs with a computer system motherboard, folks should not go ahead and take risk associated with repairing that themselves because if it is not done right it can lead to irreparable damage to the entire laptop. It is usually safe just to approach a dealer of your laptop for that repair of the motherboard. They’ve technicians who have an experience in dealing with laptop motherboard issues and can get the right analysis and accomplish repairs. jdei726ya

May 30, 2013 2:43 pm
Raceview Dental on whole page :

In accordance with my observation, after a in foreclosure process home is marketed at an auction, it is common with the borrower to be able to still have some sort ofthat remaining unpaid debt on the personal loan. There are many creditors who try to have all expenses and liens paid by the upcoming buyer. Having said that, depending on certain programs, polices, and state legislation there may be quite a few loans which are not easily handled through the shift of loans. Therefore, the obligation still lies on the customer that has had his or her property foreclosed on. Thank you sharing your ideas on this web site.

May 30, 2013 4:00 pm
plumbing on paragraph -1:

What’s up, I read your blogs on a regular basis. Your writing style is witty, keep it up!

May 31, 2013 12:03 am
water ionizer on whole page :

Excellent blog right here! Also your site lots up very fast! What host are you using? Can I get your affiliate link in your host? I desire my web site loaded up as fast as yours lol

May 31, 2013 5:14 am
mon blog on whole page :

wonderful post, very informative. I wonder why the other specialists of this sector don’t notice this. You must continue your writing. I am sure, you have a huge readers’ base already! jdei726ya

May 31, 2013 12:20 pm
Cornell on paragraph -1:

Link exchange is nothing else except it is only placing the other person’s webpage link on your page at proper place and other person will also do similar for you.

May 31, 2013 10:01 pm
ripped x on whole page :

Thanks for your writing. I would also love to say a health insurance brokerage also works well with the benefit of the coordinators of the group insurance coverage. The health insurance professional is given a list of benefits sought by individuals or a group coordinator. What any broker does indeed is try to find individuals or perhaps coordinators that best fit those needs. Then he gifts his advice and if both parties agree, this broker formulates a binding agreement between the two parties.

June 1, 2013 6:04 am
projekty ogrodów Wroc?aw on whole page :

A person essentially help to make seriously posts I would state. This is the first time I frequented your website page and thus far? I surprised with the research you made to create this particular publish incredible. Fantastic job!

June 2, 2013 2:33 am
About MichaelFehlings on whole page :

I think other web site proprietors should take this website as an model, very clean and excellent user genial style and design, as well as the content. You’re an expert in this topic!

June 2, 2013 3:25 pm
elevate gf gnc on whole page :

Also I believe that mesothelioma cancer is a unusual form of many forms of cancer that is often found in all those previously familiar with asbestos. Cancerous cells form in the mesothelium, which is a shielding lining that covers the vast majority of body’s internal organs. These cells commonly form inside lining from the lungs, abdominal area, or the sac that encircles the heart. Thanks for sharing your ideas.

June 3, 2013 7:32 am
Nano Engineered Oils on whole page :

Many thanks for this article. I would also like to express that it can be hard if you are in school and merely starting out to create a long credit history. There are many individuals who are only trying to live and have a good or beneficial credit history is often a difficult issue to have.

June 3, 2013 6:23 pm
plantar fasciitis seattle on whole page :

Good day! This is kind of off topic but I need some guidance from an established blog. Is it very hard to set up your own blog? I’m not very techincal but I can figure things out pretty quick. I’m thinking about setting up my own but I’m not sure where to start. Do you have any ideas or suggestions? Many thanks

June 4, 2013 2:19 pm
heel pain Seattle on whole page :

Hey! I know this is kinda off topic but I was wondering if you knew where I could locate a captcha plugin for my comment form? I’m using the same blog platform as yours and I’m having problems finding one? Thanks a lot!

June 4, 2013 7:30 pm
plantar fasciitis Seattle on whole page :

Hi would you mind sharing which blog platform you’re using? I’m looking to start my own blog in the near future but I’m having a hard time selecting between BlogEngine/Wordpress/B2evolution and Drupal. The reason I ask is because your layout seems different then most blogs and I’m looking for something completely unique. P.S Sorry for getting off-topic but I had to ask!

June 4, 2013 10:30 pm
hacker un compte facebook on whole page :

I was studying some of your posts on this website and I believe this internet site is very instructive! Keep on putting up.

June 5, 2013 4:41 am
Lilli Ahr on whole page :

Just wanna remark on few common things, The site style is ideal, the topic matter is rattling great

June 5, 2013 6:44 am
top solo ads on whole page :

Nice read, I just passed this onto a colleague who was doing some research on that. And he actually bought me lunch as I found it for him smile Thus let me rephrase that: Thank you for lunch! “The future is not something we enter. The future is something we create.” by Leonard I. Sweet.

June 5, 2013 10:03 am
neverwinter power leveling on whole page :

What i do not understood is if truth be told how you’re now not actually much more smartly-liked than you might be now. You are so intelligent. You know thus significantly in the case of this topic, produced me in my view believe it from a lot of various angles. Its like men and women are not involved unless it is one thing to accomplish with Woman gaga! Your own stuffs nice. At all times deal with it up!

June 5, 2013 2:32 pm
blade and soul gold on whole page :

You are my breathing in, I possess few blogs and often run out from to brand.

June 5, 2013 5:31 pm
blocked drains on whole page :

Thanks for ones marvelous posting! I certainly enjoyed reading it, you might be a great author.I will be sure to bookmark your blog and may come back later on. I want to encourage that you continue your great job, have a nice day!

June 5, 2013 6:26 pm
ruff roofers baltimore md on whole page :

Hello there! This is my first visit to your blog! We are a collection of volunteers and starting a new project in a community in the same niche. Your blog provided us beneficial information to work on. You have done a outstanding job!

June 6, 2013 11:12 pm
new jersey personal trainer on whole page :

Terrific paintings! That is the kind of information that should be shared across the internet. Shame on the search engines for now not positioning this post upper! Come on over and talk over with my web site . Thank you =)

June 7, 2013 12:20 pm
canon slr cameras on whole page :

What sort of digicam is that? That is certainly a really good good quality.

June 7, 2013 12:23 pm
disfraces Sexys on whole page :

I with each other with my pals happened to be reading by the most beneficial assistance out of your web weblog even though all of a sudden developed a terrible feeling I had not expressed respect for the weblog owner for all those tactics. These young males are currently for that purpose joyful to learn all of them and have now sincerely been loving them. We appreciate you genuinely truly thoughtful then for choosing these sorts of decent topic matter most of the people are actually eager to learn. Our sincere regret for not expressing appreciation to you sooner.

June 7, 2013 2:30 pm
hop over to this site on whole page :

I love your blog.. very nice colors & theme. Did you make this website yourself or did you hire someone to do it for you? Plz answer back as I’m looking to construct my own blog and would like to know where u got this from. thanks

June 7, 2013 2:59 pm
pads wee wee on whole page :

We stumbled over here coming from a different web page and thought I should check things out. I like what I see so now i’m following you. Look forward to looking at your web page yet again.

June 7, 2013 4:16 pm
OC Lublin on whole page :

Good post however , I was wondering if you could write a litte more on this subject? I’d be very grateful if you could elaborate a little bit more. Thanks!

June 7, 2013 5:47 pm
click here on whole page :

Thanks for your marvelous posting! I quite enjoyed reading it, you’re a great author.I will be sure to bookmark your blog and definitely will come back sometime soon. I want to encourage one to continue your great work, have a nice evening!

June 7, 2013 8:43 pm
Green Coffee Bean Extract on whole page :

When I originally left a comment I seem to have clicked on the -Notify me when new comments are added- checkbox and now whenever a comment is added I recieve four emails with the same comment. Is there a means you can remove me from that service? Thanks a lot!

June 10, 2013 8:44 am
cfd options on whole page :

themselves, especially thinking about the fact that you simply may possibly have performed it in case you ever decided. The pointers as well served to provide a terrific technique to

June 10, 2013 9:47 am
buyers on whole page :

The following time I read a weblog, I hope that it doesnt disappoint me as quite a bit as this one. I imply, I know it was my option to discover, but I truly believed youd have 1 factor fascinating to say. All I hear is usually a bunch of whining about something which you’d repair after you werent too busy in search of attention.

June 10, 2013 1:29 pm
blog on whole page :

Simply wanna say that this is exceptionally beneficial, Thanks for taking your time to create this.

June 10, 2013 3:26 pm
Science on whole page :

Your weblog doesn’t display appropriately on my iphone - you might wanna attempt and repair that

June 11, 2013 12:46 pm
zobacz on whole page :

Appreciating the dedication you put into your website and detailed information you offer. It’s nice to come across a blog every once in a while that isn’t the same unwanted rehashed information. Fantastic read! I’ve saved your site and I’m adding your RSS feeds to my Google account.

June 11, 2013 5:15 pm
Tech Led on whole page :

Hey there! Someone in my Facebook group shared this site with us so I came to look it over. I’m definitely loving the information. I’m book-marking and will be tweeting this to my followers! Outstanding blog and fantastic design.

June 12, 2013 5:30 am
kliknij on whole page :

Have you ever considered about adding a little bit more than just your articles? I mean, what you say is valuable and everything. But imagine if you added some great pictures or video clips to give your posts more, “pop”! Your content is excellent but with images and videos, this site could definitely be one of the best in its field. Great blog!

June 12, 2013 5:42 pm
glass birds on whole page :

Terrific post however I was wanting to know if you could write a litte more on this topic? I’d be very thankful if you could elaborate a little bit further. Thank you!

June 12, 2013 7:16 pm
Logiciel Transport on whole page :

Hello this is somewhat of off topic but I was wanting to know if blogs use WYSIWYG editors or if you have to manually code with HTML. I’m starting a blog soon but have no coding experience so I wanted to get advice from someone with experience. Any help would be enormously appreciated!

June 12, 2013 8:53 pm
similar website on whole page :

If some one needs to be updated with most up-to-date technologies therefore he must be visit this website and be up to date daily.

June 13, 2013 7:40 pm

I’ve recently started a web site, the info you provide on this website has helped me tremendously. Thanks for all of your time & work. “There is a time for many words, and there is also a time for sleep.” by Homer.

June 14, 2013 6:28 am

I savor, lead to I discovered exactly what I used to be taking a look for. You have ended my 4 day lengthy hunt! God Bless you man. Have a nice day. Bye

June 14, 2013 8:00 am

Thanks , I’ve just been searching for information about this subject for a long time and yours is the best I have discovered till now. However, what about the conclusion? Are you positive about the supply?

June 14, 2013 8:37 am
Nuevo Calais Bench on whole page :

With havin so much written content do you ever run into any issues of plagorism or copyright violation? My blog has a lot of unique content I’ve either created myself or outsourced but it seems a lot of it is popping it up all over the internet without my authorization. Do you know any ways to help protect against content from being stolen? I’d definitely appreciate it.

June 14, 2013 9:22 am
mocne katalogi stron on whole page :

How educational it is.

June 14, 2013 9:52 am
Perry Scalise on whole page :

There’s a great exclusive ibook all about graffiti art. Tons of amazing pictures.

June 14, 2013 12:56 pm
super katalog on whole page :

This blog is very educational.

June 14, 2013 4:04 pm
o nas on whole page :

It’s a shame you don’t have a donate button! I’d certainly donate to this brilliant blog! I guess for now i’ll settle for bookmarking and adding your RSS feed to my Google account. I look forward to new updates and will talk about this blog with my Facebook group. Chat soon!

June 14, 2013 7:33 pm

I establish accordingly countless exciting things in your blog especially its discussion. Commencing the tons of comments on your articles, I estimate I am not the only one having all the enjoyment here! keep cheery the good work.

June 15, 2013 10:06 am
link on whole page :

Thankful for this well-written blog on a area that I am extremely keen in. I wonder if there are more updates coming up? I should set a reminder on your article for readings in the future. J Gateway Condo Price

June 16, 2013 12:35 pm
site WWW on whole page :

Have you ever thought about creating an e-book or guest authoring on other sites? I have a blog centered on the same information you discuss and would really like to have you share some stories/information. I know my visitors would appreciate your work. If you’re even remotely interested, feel free to shoot me an e-mail.

June 17, 2013 5:24 am
Pedagogium on whole page :

It’s a shame you don’t have a donate button! I’d most certainly donate to this brilliant blog! I guess for now i’ll settle for book-marking and adding your RSS feed to my Google account. I look forward to brand new updates and will talk about this website with my Facebook group. Chat soon!

June 18, 2013 10:20 am
Clyde Feucht on whole page :

I will immediately grab your rss as I can not find your e-mail subscription link or newsletter service. Do you’ve any? Please permit me understand in order that I may just subscribe. Thanks

June 18, 2013 12:29 pm
plastech on whole page :

Great blog! Do you have any hints for aspiring writers? I’m hoping to start my own blog soon but I’m a little lost on everything. Would you recommend starting with a free platform like Wordpress or go for a paid option? There are so many choices out there that I’m completely confused .. Any suggestions? Appreciate it!

June 18, 2013 4:14 pm
Gleboczek Vine Resort & Spa on whole page :

Hey there! Someone in my Facebook group shared this site with us so I came to check it out. I’m definitely loving the information. I’m bookmarking and will be tweeting this to my followers! Great blog and superb style and design.

June 18, 2013 5:57 pm
Mapping Applications on whole page :

Hey I praise your blog! Just wanna state that this is handy , Thanks for taking your time to write this

June 19, 2013 5:49 am
timber investment on whole page :

Hey would you mind sharing which blog platform you’re working with? I’m planning to start my own blog soon but I’m having a hard time choosing between BlogEngine/Wordpress/B2evolution and Drupal. The reason I ask is because your design and style seems different then most blogs and I’m looking for something unique. P.S Sorry for being off-topic but I had to ask!

June 19, 2013 8:29 am
Buy palms on whole page :

Hello there! This post could not be written any better! Reading this post reminds me of my previous room mate! He always kept talking about this. I will forward this page to him. Pretty sure he will have a good read. Many thanks for sharing!

June 20, 2013 1:19 pm
website on whole page :

Hmm it seems like your blog ate my first comment (it was extremely long) so I guess I’ll just sum it up what I submitted and say, I’m thoroughly enjoying your blog. I as well am an aspiring blog writer but I’m still new to the whole thing. Do you have any recommendations for novice blog writers? I’d really appreciate it.

June 20, 2013 2:59 pm

I’ve recently started a web site, and the information you offer on this site has helped me greatly. Thanks for all of your time & work.

June 22, 2013 11:03 pm
hosting mexico on whole page :

Please let me know if you’re looking for a author for your blog. You have some really great articles and I believe I would be a good asset. If you ever want to take some of the load off, I’d really like to write some material for your blog in exchange for a link back to mine. Please blast me an e-mail if interested. Many thanks!

June 24, 2013 12:35 pm

Hi I am so excited I found your blog page, I really found you by mistake, while I was searching on Digg for something else, Regardless I am here now and would just like to say thanks a lot for a incredible post and a all round entertaining blog (I also love the theme/design), I don’t have time to go through it all at the moment but I have book-marked it and also added your RSS feeds, so when I have time I will be back to read more, Please do keep up the excellent job.

June 26, 2013 1:55 pm
airport parking luton on whole page :

Great blog you have here but I was wondering if you knew of any message boards that cover the same topics talked about here? I’d really love to be a part of community where I can get responses from other knowledgeable people that share the same interest. If you have any suggestions, please let me know. Thanks!

June 26, 2013 6:43 pm

Hello! I know this is kinda off topic but I was wondering if you knew where I could locate a captcha plugin for my comment form? I’m using the same blog platform as yours and I’m having problems finding one? Thanks a lot!

June 28, 2013 5:14 am
vaporizer pen on whole page :

I do agree with all the ideas you’ve presented for your post. They are very convincing and will definitely work. Still, the posts are very short for newbies. May just you please extend them a little from next time? Thank you for the post.

June 28, 2013 9:55 am
Renaldo Utterback on whole page :

I am continually looking online for ideas that can assist me. Thanks!

July 2, 2013 5:33 am
pest control austin on whole page :

I really appreciated reading your post here. Simply wanted to say that your blog is awesome, keep writing such intruiging posts

July 4, 2013 1:27 pm
Full Survey on whole page :

I think that is one of the such a lot significant info for me. And i’m satisfied reading your article. But wanna remark on few basic things, The website taste is perfect, the articles is truly excellent : D. Good task, cheers

July 5, 2013 5:02 pm
opakowania kartony on paragraph -1:

With havin so much content and articles do you ever run
into any issues of plagorism or copyright infringement? My blog has a lot of unique
content I’ve either created myself or outsourced but it appears a lot of it is popping it up all over the web without my agreement. Do you know any techniques to help stop content from being stolen? I’d definitely appreciate it.

July 6, 2013 2:42 am

This website was… how do I say it? Relevant!! Finally I’ve found something that helped me. Appreciate it.

July 7, 2013 7:04 pm
click here! on whole page :

Nowadays YouTube videos quality is more enhanced and superior, therefore that’s the motive that I am watching this video at at this time.

July 10, 2013 1:31 pm
Lindsy Bernsen on whole page :

Have you ever thought about writing an ebook or guest authoring on other blogs? I have a blog based upon on the same topics you discuss and would love to have you share some stories/information. I know my subscribers would enjoy your work. If you are even remotely interested, feel free to shoot me an e mail.

July 10, 2013 8:38 pm
Kristal Pizzico on whole page :

My coder is trying to persuade me to move to .net from PHP. I have always disliked the idea because of the expenses. But he’s tryiong none the less. I’ve been using Movable-type on numerous websites for about a year and am concerned about switching to another platform. I have heard very good things about blogengine.net. Is there a way I can import all my wordpress posts into it? Any kind of help would be greatly appreciated!

July 12, 2013 8:36 pm
Zachary Blitch on whole page :

Hello! I’ve been reading your site for a long time now and finally got the courage to go ahead and give you a shout out from New Caney Texas! Just wanted to tell you keep up the fantastic job!

July 13, 2013 2:06 am
Garland Stephan on whole page :

Wow that was unusual. I just wrote an extremely long comment but after I clicked submit my comment didn’t show up. Grrrr… well I’m not writing all that over again. Anyhow, just wanted to say great blog!

July 14, 2013 12:00 pm
chair covers on whole page :

First class site, sending thanks to you for publishing this, I am right now learning to be a event planning co-ordinator, I am going to save this blog, thank you for your considerable effort in creating the content.

July 14, 2013 8:49 pm
Ricky Kundtz on whole page :

Does your website have a contact page? I’m having trouble locating it but, I’d like to shoot you an email. I’ve got some creative ideas for your blog you might be interested in hearing. Either way, great site and I look forward to seeing it expand over time.

July 14, 2013 10:56 pm
Dong Guerrieri on whole page :

Hey there! I know this is kind of off topic but I was wondering which blog platform are you using for this website? I’m getting fed up of Wordpress because I’ve had issues with hackers and I’m looking at options for another platform. I would be great if you could point me in the direction of a good platform.

July 15, 2013 7:34 am
Robbie Birk on whole page :

Have you ever considered creating an e-book or guest authoring on other blogs? I have a blog centered on the same subjects you discuss and would love to have you share some stories/information. I know my readers would enjoy your work. If you’re even remotely interested, feel free to shoot me an e mail.

July 16, 2013 2:13 am
Replica Christian Louboutin on whole page :

I was studying some of your posts on this internet site and I think this internet site is real instructive! Continue posting .

July 16, 2013 6:08 pm
click here on whole page :

Hey there! I know this is kinda off topic but I’d figured I’d ask. Would you be interested in exchanging links or maybe guest authoring a blog article or vice-versa? My website goes over a lot of the same subjects as yours and I think we could greatly benefit from each other. If you happen to be interested feel free to shoot me an e-mail. I look forward to hearing from you! Excellent blog by the way!

July 18, 2013 1:30 pm

Hiya very nice website!! Guy .. Beautiful .. Wonderful .. I’ll bookmark your site and take the feeds additionally?’m happy to find so many useful information right here in the post, we want work out extra techniques on this regard, thanks for sharing.

July 19, 2013 2:09 am
Kimberley Bowgren on whole page :

Hello! I just wanted to ask if you ever have any trouble with hackers? My last blog (wordpress) was hacked and I ended up losing many months of hard work due to no backup. Do you have any solutions to prevent hackers?

July 20, 2013 3:52 am
led lights on whole page :

Hey dude, what kind of wordpress theme are you currently working with? i want it to utilize on my weblog also “

July 22, 2013 1:31 am
Kathrine Wickersham on whole page :

Whoa! This blog looks just like my old one! It’s on a entirely different subject but it has pretty much the same layout and design. Wonderful choice of colors!

July 24, 2013 7:08 am
6ft gate on whole page :

cool i didn’t now that cheers

July 25, 2013 5:36 pm
steel gate on whole page :

This post put me back in my place. I have a lot to learn about this stuff.

July 25, 2013 5:43 pm
Arthur Radomski on whole page :

I’m curious to find out what blog platform you’re using? I’m having some small security problems with my latest blog and I would like to find something more secure. Do you have any solutions?

July 29, 2013 7:43 am
Business Electricity Prices on whole page :

Do you have a spam problem on this site; I also am a blogger, and I was wondering your situation; we have created some nice procedures and we are looking to trade strategies with other folks, please shoot me an e-mail if interested.

July 29, 2013 3:40 pm
Mervin Behrns on whole page :

Greetings from California! I’m bored to tears at work so I decided to browse your website on my iphone during lunch break. I love the knowledge you provide here and can’t wait to take a look when I get home. I’m amazed at how quick your blog loaded on my phone .. I’m not even using WIFI, just 3G .. Anyways, wonderful site!

July 30, 2013 6:40 am
Emanuel Cassius on whole page :

Right now it appears like Drupal is the preferred blogging platform available right now. (from what I’ve read) Is that what you are using on your blog?

July 30, 2013 3:08 pm
Read the Full Post on whole page :

In my house when I get bored, after that I simply ON my computer and open YouTube web site to watch the YouTube videos.

August 2, 2013 1:10 am
read more here on whole page :

In my house when I get bored, after that I only ON my computer and open YouTube web page to watch the YouTube video clips.

August 2, 2013 5:48 am
sea horizon on whole page :

Hi there just wanted to give you a quick heads up. The words in your content seem to be running off the screen in Firefox. I’m not sure if this is a format issue or something to do with internet browser compatibility but I thought I’d post to let you know. The design and style look great though! Hope you get the problem resolved soon. Many thanks

August 2, 2013 4:55 pm
about us on whole page :

I would like to show some appreciation to the writer just for bailing me out of this type of condition. After surfing around throughout the world-wide-web and obtaining recommendations which were not productive, I figured my life was gone. Being alive devoid of the approaches to the difficulties you have resolved by way of the post is a critical case, and those that might have badly affected my career if I had not encountered your web blog. Your own personal competence and kindness in playing with every aspect was invaluable. I am not sure what I would have done if I had not encountered such a point like this. I can also now look forward to my future. Thanks very much for the impressive and amazing help. I will not be reluctant to refer your blog to any person who will need care on this area.

August 3, 2013 5:57 pm
after school tutoring on whole page :

Hello every buddy, it’s a enormous enjoyment at here viewing these funny YouTube video tutorials at here, fastidious stuff, thanks to admin

August 5, 2013 8:58 am
Marvis Sanchirico on whole page :

Hi! This is my first comment here so I just wanted to give a quick shout out and say I really enjoy reading your articles. Can you suggest any other blogs/websites/forums that cover the same topics? Thanks for your time!

August 8, 2013 12:31 pm
flat belly diet on whole page :

|I’d have to check with you here. Which is not something I usually do! I enjoy reading a post that will make people think. Also, thanks for allowing me to comment!

August 8, 2013 7:30 pm
Thay on whole page :

I’m more than happy to discover this website. I wanted to thank you for your time for this fantastic read!! I definitely savored every bit of it and I have you book marked to check out new information in your website.

August 15, 2013 1:02 pm
Gregory Ebach on whole page :

This site truly has all the information and facts I wanted concerning this subject and didn’t know who to ask.

August 20, 2013 5:44 am
Wake up now on whole page :

Does your website have a contact page? I’m having a tough time locating it but, I’d like to shoot you an e-mail. I’ve got some recommendations for your blog you might be interested in hearing. Either way, great website and I look forward to seeing it expand over time.

August 21, 2013 5:02 pm
EroDigest on whole page :

Do you mind if I quote a couple of your posts as long as I provide credit and sources back to your website? My blog is in the exact same area of interest as yours and my visitors would certainly benefit from some of the information you provide here. Please let me know if this alright with you. Appreciate it!

September 9, 2013 4:47 pm
Joel Windon on whole page :

Stephen, I got the first letter and every a single after EXCEPT Margaret Cho’s. Can you remedy that, please?

September 11, 2013 11:39 pm
filmy bez limitow on whole page :

Hello, i read your blog occasionally and i own a similar one and i was just wondering if you get a lot of spam responses? If so how do you prevent it, any plugin or anything you can recommend? I get so much lately it’s driving me mad so any support is very much appreciated.

September 12, 2013 6:05 pm
auckland seo on whole page :

Hello! I know this is kinda off topic but I’d figured I’d ask. Would you be interested in exchanging links or maybe guest writing a blog article or vice-versa? My site goes over a lot of the same subjects as yours and I think we could greatly benefit from each other. If you happen to be interested feel free to send me an e-mail. I look forward to hearing from you! Great blog by the way!

September 24, 2013 1:52 am
visit their website on whole page :

Okay you are right, really Personal home page is a open source and its assist we can obtain free from any community forum or site as it happens here at this site.

October 31, 2013 9:19 pm
medical assisting on whole page :

This paragraph is related to web programming is genuinely good in support of me because I am web programmer. Thanks for sharing keep it up.|

November 3, 2013 9:01 pm

This is getting a bit more subjective, but I much prefer the Zune Marketplace. The interface is colorful, has more flair, and some cool features like Mixview’ that let you quickly see related albums, songs, or other users related to what you’re listening to. Clicking on one of those will center on that item, and another set of “neighbors” will come into view, allowing you to navigate around exploring by similar artists, songs, or users. Speaking of users, the Zune “Social” is also great fun, letting you find others with shared tastes and becoming friends with them. You then can listen to a playlist created based on an amalgamation of what all your friends are listening to, which is also enjoyable. Those concerned with privacy will be relieved to know you can prevent the public from seeing your personal listening habits if you so choose.|

November 4, 2013 12:23 pm
aama on whole page :

Can i also point out that schrodinger’s rapist applies to those who are not socially normal, or borderline creepy or whatever due to developmental difficulites or other mental issues? Just because someone has asperger’s doesn’t mean that he won’t rape you. The issues there are different, but the idea behind the post still applies.|

November 10, 2013 2:00 pm
MEDICAL ASSISTANT on whole page :

Excellent and courageous post, justine.|

November 10, 2013 3:12 pm
RMA on whole page :

actually those two trees may be the same but are clearly from different points in time because in toy story 2 the tree is on a hill (same as in up) but in a bugs life the tree is on a tiny island|

November 10, 2013 3:36 pm
wISDOM TEETH PAIN on whole page :

Hee. I guess jake was just too edgy and forward-thinking for both of us.|

November 12, 2013 12:36 am
Knee Pain Minneapolis on whole page :

Please let me know if you’re looking for a writer for your blog. You have some really good posts and I believe I would be a good asset. If you ever want to take some of the load off, I’d absolutely love to write some material for your blog in exchange for a link back to mine. Please shoot me an e-mail if interested. Cheers!

November 13, 2013 9:02 am
Teena Schure on whole page :

I’ll right away grab your rss feed as I cannot discover your email subscription hyperlink or newsletter support. Do you have any? Satisfy let me know in order that I could subscribe. Thanks.

November 15, 2013 1:15 am
mEDICAL aSSISTANT on whole page :

Qiang unclear opponent’s bottom line. But to see them so vicious shot also played a kill, he quietly compressed gun fight at the highest power, listening to another round bursts from the outside of the window and over the head, and then qiang hands on soto’s about to stand up, then double- yi deng feet and on the ground. Body jumped window, that was on the fifth floor! By jumping inertia qiang’s body before being able to continue to fly. But if he will fall exhausted inertia, etc.!|

November 24, 2013 9:27 am
best radar detectors on whole page :

my ugs very fashioneble speed radars detectors

November 27, 2013 11:40 pm
medical assistant on whole page :

Thanks for the useful information on credit repair on this amazing site. The thing i would tell people would be to give up a mentality that they buy today and pay back later. As being a society most of us tend to repeat this for many things. This includes trips, furniture, in addition to items we would like. However, you’ll want to separate your wants from all the needs. When you’re working to improve your credit score you have to make some sacrifices. For example it is possible to shop online to economize or you can go to second hand stores instead of pricey department stores pertaining to clothing.|

November 28, 2013 11:54 am
Alease Bobby on whole page :

What i tend not to notice is actually how you’re going to be not really a lot more effectively-liked than you may be at the moment. That you are incredibly intelligent. You recognize consequently considerably relating to this subject, created me personally consider it from so many varied angles. Its like women of all ages and adult males are not fascinated until it’s one particular matter to accomplish with Woman gaga! Your individual stuffs excellent. Always keep it up!

December 2, 2013 6:23 am

I really like and appreciate your blog article.much thanks again.|

December 23, 2013 1:47 am
get it now on whole page :

My spouse and i site usually i really thanks for your content. These tips have actually actually peaked this interest. I am going to take note of your blog and maintain checking choosing details about weekly. My partner and i decided upon a person’s RSS feed also.

January 3, 2014 9:18 pm
make money online on whole page :

Enjoyed every bit of your post.Much thanks again. Keep writing.

March 24, 2014 4:00 am
Vicki Dossett on whole page :

Firstly, the headline is a disgrace. I also would like to echo earlier criticisms about the frequency of statements of the nature of “I was told that …” Journalism has always been a fishy business, but I doubt even the subs at the Murdoch metros would allow those through without a fair amount of squealing about the instant unbelievability that unattributed statements would lend to the the story. I realize Nick is a blogster, but Andrew and Nicholas are academics who get peer reviewed, and it would be nice if they could exert a similar level of quality control over the writers whom they feature and the headlines they write. Nick may feel that the Reds are right, but you are university teachers at ANU, and I don’t think you should be sounding like the flipside of David Penberthy.

May 19, 2014 8:16 am
Click Here on whole page :

Please forgive my English.I am continuously searching online for posts that can facilitate me. Thx!

May 19, 2014 10:07 am
www on whole page :

I really like it when folks get together and share ideas. Great site, stick with it!

May 19, 2014 2:14 pm
Bud Olynger on whole page :

It should be good for Australia and Thailand to be kin, as they are both primitive.

May 22, 2014 7:26 pm
linked website on whole page :

relevant web page

May 29, 2014 12:34 am
Lolita Semans on whole page :

The main point of the BP article was not, it seems, to dismiss the qualifications of MPs who are members of political families. The point is that these clans put money and power interests over politics. As the author writes: “The picture isn’t one of families in politics, because that implies politics is the more powerful force…” The sheer number of MPs from political dynasties is excessive. Arguably, these families are not entering politics mainly to improve legislation for the benefit of the electorate. The loyalty of these MPs tends to be first and foremost to their families when it should be to the ultimate sovereign, the people, who elected them. This is all about social and political reproduction. And that young family members are learning the rules of the political game early on is all the more worrying as these rules seem to be more about power-grabbing, networking with the right institutions, and backroom dealings than about the obligations of parliamentarians in a democracy.

May 29, 2014 3:23 pm
paint ball minneapolis on whole page :

Sorry, I not speak good english.Wow, marvelous blog format! How long have you been running a blog for? you made blogging look easy. The entire glance of your web site is fantastic, let alone the content!

June 6, 2014 11:20 am

English is not my first language.I think this is one of the most vital information for me. And i’m glad reading your article. But wanna remark on few general things, The site style is ideal, the articles is really nice : D. Good job, cheers

June 8, 2014 10:56 pm
timberland store on whole page :

timberland store…

Stay away from designer knock offs, though. Since their whole reason for existence is to merely look like the real thing on the cheap, durability is rarely a factor in their construction….

July 28, 2014 9:32 am